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| 880129 | | [017 Capps, Edward, 1866. 1950. | | The stage in the Creek theatre according to tho} extant dramas; inaugural dissertation presented. .e! by Edward Capps. New Haven, 1891. 80 pe 25 Clie

Thesis (PhD), Yale University, 1891. Extracted from the Transactions of the American philological association, v.22,1891. |

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Inaugural Dissertation





Extracted from the Transactions of the American Philological Association, Vol. ΧΧΙΙ, 1891.


Introduction . . : : ° I, Evidence against an Elevated Stage . , A. Inter-action between Actors and Chorus . Passing from palace to orchestra Passing from orchestra to palace Chorus and actors depart together Chorus and actors enter together Chariot scenes ; Assembly scenes. ; 7. Search scenes . 8. Altar scenes . : ᾿ , ; Ξ 9. Chorus called to the palace, and minor instances —a refutation of A. Miiller’s argument, based on the non-performance of certain proposed movements of the chorus, that the action

{οὐ 9 ** stage .

was prevented by the difficulty of mounting the 10. Encounters between actors and chorus . : Results of Preceding Arguments . ; Ξ Table of the Instances of Inter-action between Actors and Chorus B. General Relation of Chorus to Actors. , : C. Numbers often brought upon the “Stage” : : D. Character of the Scenic Setting in Certain Plays

E. Street Scenes in Aristophanes ; : :

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II. Consideration of the Evidence adduced in Favor of an Elevated Stage 64-77

1. Indications of a change of level when there is passing between stage and orchestra; dva- and κατα-βαίνειν , : ; :

‘2, Expressions which are explained by the supposition of a difference of level between “stage” and orchestra. : : :

} : : ~ 3. Scenes whose presentation required an elevation; use of roof of

proscenium . : ; . . .

Conclusion . ; : ; : : : : :

It has long been an accepted principle! in the study of

scenic antiquities that the evidence derived from the ex- tant plays outweighs in value that from all our other

sources —the existing theatre ruins, Vitruvius, Pollux, and the scholiasts. An equally important principle, however, has not been distinctly recognized, viz., that the plays themselves must be the ultimate test of all theories based on evidence drawn from external sources. Even the results obtained from the existing ruins must be made to conform to the require- nents of the plays,? in view of the many elements of uncer- tainty introduced by the alteration and decay of the ancient structures. But if ruins are found whose condition warrants definite conclusions, the testimony of the theatre and the requirements of the drama should be in perfect harmony.

1 First definitely laid down by Gottfried Hermann in his recension of Otfried Miiller’s Eumenides. Albert Miiller, Biihnenalterthiimer, p. 107, subscribes to the same principle but fails to follosy it consistently. See the same author in Phil. Anzeiger, xv, p. 525; Wilamowitg-MOllendorff, Hermes, xxi, p. 603; and Haigh, Attic Theatre, p. 144.

2 Dérpfeld himself, who bases his new theories entirely on archaeological and architectural grounds, recognizes the plays as our best source of information. See his recension of Haigh’s Attic Theatre, Berl. Phil. Woch. 1890, 468.


6 Edward Capps. [ 1891.

If this harmony exists, we shall be justified in rejecting any contradicting testimony of Vitruvius, Pollux, or the scholiasts, especially since these writers have often been found in error.!

The traditional belief that the Greek theatre had a stage of from ten to twelve feet in height? reserved almost exclu- sively for actors, as the orchestra was for the chorus,® and connected with the orchestra by a flight of steps,* students of the drama have long felt to be unsatisfactory for an easy and natural interpretation of the extant plays. Three impor- tant attempts have been made to relieve the difficulty caused by so great an elevation. That of Gottfried Hermann, who held that a platform for the chorus was erected in the orches- tra to within a few feet of the stage level, has been most widely received, but has been shown to rest on no sound evidence either literary or archaeological.® Julius Hépken in 1884, fol- lowing the suggestion of the plays, and finding support in the ancient authorities, announced the novel theory that both actors and chorus moved on the same level in the orchestra, in which was built a temporary platform on the level of the proscenium, while the proscenium, miscalled the stage, was used for the support of the stage machinery. Most recently Dr. Wilhelm Dorpfeld, the eminent architect and archaeolo- gist, after study of the best preserved ruins, has reached the

1 Scholars have often been too ready to attribute error to Vitruvius. He claims (De Arch. v, 6, 7) to treat only of types of theatres. This is shown to be true by Oehmichen, Griechischer Theaterbau, p. gt ff.; cf. A. Miiller, Biihnenalt., p. 21. Vitruvius, moreover, nowhere says that he is speaking of the Greek theatre of classical times. Kirchhoff, Vergleichung der Ueberreste vom Theater zu Athen, p- 7, has vindicated his accuracy in details. For a general estimate of his work, see Geppert, Die altgr. Biihne, p. 85 ff. Pollux is full of errors; see Hermann, Op. vi, 2, p. 133. On the scholiasts, see A. Miiller, Phil. Anz. xv, p. 525.

2 Vitruv. 5, 7, 2. 8 Pollux, Onom. 4, 123. # Poll. 4, 137 and scholiasts.

δ Opusc. vi, 2, p. 153, defended by A. Miiller, Biihnenalt., p. 129, and by Wie- seler, Ueber die Thymele, who endeavors to prove that this platform was known as the “thymele.” For opposing arguments, see Kawerau in Baumeister’s Denk- miler, s.v. Theatergebiude; Haigh, Attic Theat., p- 154; D6rpfeld’s recension of the same, Berl. Phil. Woch. 1890, 467; and especially Harzmann, Questiones Scaenicae, pp. 15-27.

6 De theatro Attico, Bonn, 1884, reviewed and severely criticised by A. Miiller, Phil. Anz. xv, p. 525 ff., and opposed by Niejahr, De Pollucis loco qui ad rem scaenicam spectat. This theory met with much opposition, largely be-

Vol. xxii. ] The Greek Stage. 7

conclusion that the theatre had no raised stage in classical times, but that the building usually supposed to be a stage, the proscenium, in reality represented the house before which the action of the piece was supposed to take place. Dorpfeld makes almost the same disposition of the actors as Hopken but offers a different explanation of the purpose of the proscenium. In accordance with the two principles of scenic investigation above laid down, it is my purpose to test this last theory of the stage in the light of the extant Greek dramas in order to ascertain first, what testimony these dramas furnish against an elevated stage, and second, how far they contain evidence in favor of it.


The arguments to be presented in the first part of this paper will be drawn from five distinct features that have been observed in the extant plays: A, the inter-action or commingling of actors and chorus; B, the general relation of the chorus to the drama and to the actors; C, the numbers brought upon the stage; D, the character of the scenic set- ting in certain plays; and E, certain street scenes in Aris-


A. Inter-action between Actors and Chorus.

Obviously the most serious objection to the Vitruvian stage is that it renders intimate connection between actors and chorus extremely awkward and difficult. That there was such connection all scholars now agree, but it has been restricted as much as possible! on account of the difficulty which it was felt would be involved in the ascending to or descending from the stage. Assuming that the usual position of the chorus was in the orchestra, and that the commingling of actors and

cause it overthrew the traditional belief, and on account of the method employed in gaining support from the ancient authorities. It was first recognized as prob- ably an attempt in the right direction in the Am. Jour. Phil. v, 253.

1 A notable exception is that of Harzmann, Quaes. Scaen., who gives a very large number of instances of inter-action, but still contends for an elevated stage.

8 Edward Capps. [1891.

chorus made it necessary for one or the other to pass over the dividing line between the so-called stage’ (which term I shall frequently employ to designate the usual position of the actors without reference to altitude) and the orchestra,

let us see what a natural interpretation of the plays de-


1. From Palace to Orchestra. In several plays the 'chorus make their entrance into the orchestra by passing / over the usual station of actors, generally coming from the | palace in the background,! as in Choephori 22 : 3

\ > U v ἰαλτὸς ἐκ δόμων ἔβαν.

The chorus in the Eumenides rush out of the temple in pur- suit of Orestes. They are probably still near the temple when Apollo drives them away, 178 ff. :

ἔξω, κελεύω, τῶνδε δωμάτων τάχος

χωρεῖτ. Similarly in the Troades the chorus come out from the tent of Hecabe, 176 (cf. 154 ff.) :

¥ \ οἴμοι, τρομερὰ σκηνὰς ἔλιπον.

We may suppose that they were in the orchestra for the first choral ode, 197 ff. In the Suppliants of Euripides the choreutae are first seen surrounding Aethra; see 8 ff. (cf.

also 94):

εἰς τάσδε yap βλέψασ᾽ ἐπηυξάμην τάδε γραῦς, αἱ λιποῦσαι δώματ᾽ ᾿Αργείας χθονὸς ἱκτῆρι θαλλῷ προσπίτνουσ᾽ ἐμὸν γόνυ πάθος παθοῦσαι δεινόν " KTE.

The whole situation is described even more clearly in 100 ff. The first choral ode (42-86), therefore, must have been sung

1 Werckmeister, Orchestra u. Biihne in der gr. Tragédie, p. 11, contends, but with insufficient evidence, that this is the case in all the tragedies of Aeschylus.

2 References are to Dindorf’s Aeschylus, Bergk’s Sophocles, Nauck’s Euripides, and Meineke’s Aristophanes.

Vol. xxii.] lhe Greek Stage. 9

on the “stage.’’ The chorus are still in the same position ma 359 , > > 9S / / > a 4

ἀλλ᾿ yEpalal, σέμν αφαιρεῖτε στέφη


It is not until the choral passage beginning with 365 that we can suppose that they took their place in the orchestra.

The women who form the chorus in the Ecclesiazusae appear at first as actors, some of them at least! coming from the doors in the rear. The house of their leader, Praxagora, is the principal one in the scene. The connection between actors and chorus is very intimate up to 311,—a feature which we shall discuss later. In the Lysistrata, although we have no positive evidence that the chorus of women come out from the citadel in 319, yet the demands of the situation make it probable that they do so.2. They come out as de- fenders of the citadel against the chorus of men. There is more doubt about the parodos of the chorus of Mystae in the Frogs. The words of the chorus (350 ff.) rather favor the view that they come from Pluto’s palace:

σὺ δὲ λαμπάδι héyyov προβάδην ἔξαγ᾽ ἐπ᾽ ἀνθηρὸν ἕλειον δάπεδον

χοροποιὸν μάκαρ ἥβαν.

Schénborn (p. 356) gives excellent artistic reasons in sup- port of the same interpretation of the passage. He seems to be right also (p. 306) in making the chorus in the Thesmo- phoriazusae appear fromthe temple. From no other place could they so fittingly come, and the short choral song® (312- 331) suggests a short parodos over the “stage” rather than a long one through the orchestra. He is wrong, however,,

1 All of them, according to Schénborn, Skene der Hellenen, p. 329.

2 80 also Droysen, Quaest. de Arist. re scaen., p. 65 ; Schdnborn, p. 299, fol- lowing the scholiast, makes them enter the stage from the right. But v. 352, θύρασιν βοηθεῖ, favors the view presented above. For this use of θύρασιν, cf. Eur. Elec. 1074, θύρασιν φαίνειν πρόσωπον.

8 This short choral ode is characteristic of a parodos from the palace. Cf. Choeph. 22-83; Eum. 140-177; Troad. 153 ff.; Lys. 319-351. Contrast Sept. 77-180; Pers. 1-158; Supp. (Aesch.) 1-175 ; Agam. 40-263; Bacch. 64-169, etc.

10 Edward Capps. [1891.

in supposing that they remain on the “stage” during the assembly scene, as we shall show later (p. 29). The narrow stage would scarcely have admitted of such a scene in any


2. From Orchestra to Palace. In three plays the exo- dos of the chorus is made from the orchestra to the house which forms the background. In the Choephori,? since they come from the palace in the beginning of the piece, so they must go back into it at the close, although indications as to their movements are entirely wanting. The chorus in the Persians® escort Xerxes into the royal palace. At the command πρὸς δόμους ἴθι (1038) the chorus begin to move slowly toward the palace. Finally comes the word to enter (1068), és δόμους κίε, and as they disappear they say :

πέμψω τοί σε δυσθρόοις γόοις.

For this conclusion we are prepared by the request of Atossa, 5209 ff. :

\ “ΩΣ 37 MB) "ἢ A , , καὶ παῖδ᾽ ἐάν περ δεῦρ᾽ ἐμοῦ πρόσθεν μόλῃ, παρηγορεῖτε, καὶ προπέμπετ᾽ ἐς δόμους."

In the Birds a messenger announces the coming of Pisthe- taerus and his bride, and bids the chorus receive them into their new home in Nephelococcygia,® 1708 :

δέχεσθε τὸν τύραννον ὀλβίοις δόμοις.

1 Similar to the instances above cited is Lys. 1239, discussed more fully else- where, where the chorus come from the palace. Dicaeopolis in Ach. 280 goes from his house into the orchestra, as is shown later (p. 73).

2 Schénborn, p. 225, denies, without reason, that the palace was represented in the scenery, and thus avoids the crossing of the “stage” by the chorus. See Hermann’s arguments on this point in De re scaen. in Aesch. Orestea, p. 9. Al- bert Miiller, p. 125, note 7, favors the above.

8 Wilamowitz-Mollendorff, Die Biihne des Aeschylus, Hermes, xxi, p. 607, contends that no conventional scenery was used in Supp., Sept., Pers., and Prom. of Aeschylus. His arguments are weaker for the Persians than for the other plays. Sommerbrodt, Scaenica, p. 147, cites v. 159 in favor of the usual scenery.

* These verses are much better read after 850 with Wecklein.

5 We follow Schénborn (p. 322) in supposing a change of scene (but not necessarily a change of scenery) at 1565, as the words of Poseidon, τὸ μὲν πόλισμα τῆς Νεφελοκοκκνγίας ὁρᾶν τοδὶ πάρεστιν, seem to demand. Muhl, Sym-

Vol. xxii. | The Greek Stage. II

They accordingly arrange their ranks and sing about the

pair the hymenaeum, 1720 ff. :

/ ἄναγε Sieve Tapaye πάρεχε

περιπέτεσθε μάκαρα μάκαρα σὺν τύχᾳ, κτέ. At its conclusion they are invited by Pisthetaerus to follow in the bridal train, 1755 ff. :

ἕπεσθε viv γάμοισιν φῦλα πάντα συννόμων πτεροφύρ᾽ ἐπὶ δάπεδον Διὸς καὶ λέχος γαμήλιον.

With these last instances may be classed those in which the chorus leave the orchestra and enter the palace during the progress of the play. These are two in number, and of course involve two passings each between “stage” and or- chestra. The situation in the Helen is clearly seen from the

following passages, 327 ff. :

Xo. θέλω δὲ κἀγὼ σοὶ συνεισελθεῖν δόμους καὶ συμπυθέσθαι παρθένου θεσπίσματα. + * * x * * ‘EX. φίλαι, λόγους ἐδεξάμαν * βᾶτε βᾶτε δ᾽ εἰς δόμους.

They return in 515:

> / Xo. ἤκουσα τᾶς θεσπιῳδοῦ κόρας, χρήσασ᾽ ἐφάνη ᾽ν τυράννοις

δόμοις, KTE.

So in the Lysistrata both the chorus of men and the chorus of women! enter the citadel at the invitation of Lysistrata (1182 ff.). That the women as well as the men go in is shown by the character of the following ode sung by the former (cf. 1195 ff.: πᾶσιν ὑμῖν λέγω λαμβάνειν TOV ἐμῶν

bolae ad rem scaen. Ach. et Av., p. 35, opposes this view. If his view 15 correct

the exit would be made through one of the wings. 1 This is Schénborn’s view (p. 301), strengthened by additional arguments,

Droysen (p. 61) holds that only the chorus of men entered, but he gives no grounds for his belief.

12 Edward Capps. [1891.

χρημάτων νῦν ἔνδοθεν), by the fact that they do not appear again as a separate chorus, and by the scene of the market- loungers (1216-1241), which is plainly thrown in by the poet to fill the gap in the action of the piece caused by the dis- appearance of both actors and chorus. The two choruses come out again at 1239, and with them the Laconian ambas- sadors, who now form a third chorus, joining after one choral ode the women of the chorus who are Spartans, while the Athenian men join the Athenian women, and all march together in two bodies from the scene. Lysistrata seems to have become one of the chorus of women.

As bearing on this same point we may cite here the most striking instance of communication between “stage” and orchestra in the Greek drama, that in the Cyclops. The decoration of the scene represents the cave of the Cyclops (cf. 33, 82, 87, etc.). In it are kept his flocks (cf. 35 and 388), as in the Odyssey. The chorus of Satyrs come in ac- companied by προσπόλοι driving the flocks, and are directed by Silenus to bid these servants drive them into the cave, 82 ff.:

σιγήσατ', τέκν᾽, ἄντρα δ᾽ εἰς πετρηρεφῆ ποίμνας ἀθροῖσαι προσπόλους κελεύσατε.

Their answer shows that the command was obeyed :}

f \ v χωρεῖτ᾽ " ἀτὰρ δὴ τίνα, πάτερ, σπουδὴν ἔχεις ;

We may believe that real goats were driven over the stage,” or else that some attempt was made to represent goats by suitable costumes, as the choruses of birds and wasps were represented in Aristophanes. It would hardly suffice that the actions indicated should be carried out only in dumb show with imaginary flocks.

3. Chorus and Actors depart together. In a large num- ber of plays, chorus and actors make their final exit for the same destination, in addition to the three plays already

1 Bruno Arnold, De rebus scaenicis in Euripidis Cyclope, p. 19 ff., feeling the absurdity of making sheep climb steps to a high platform, tries unsuccessfw'y to prove that they and the chorus enter the “stage” by one of the wings.

Vol. xxii.] The Greek Stage. 13

cited where this destination is the palace. In every in- |


stance it is the natural supposition that they depart together |

and by the same place of exit, but many writers! on this sub- ject, in view of the supposed difficulty caused by the height of the “stage,” have supposed the chorus to leave the orches- tra by one of the parodoi, and the actors to leave the “stage” through one of the wings; the direction in which they depart would be the same, and the spectators must imagine them to meet after their disappearance from view. It is neces- sary, therefore, to bring together from the plays, both from the text itself and from the general situation, all the instances

which furnish evidence that the actors and chorus were actu- |

ally together in making their exit.

The closing scene of the Eumenides is a splendid proces- sion in which all take part, Athene, the Areopagites, the servants of the temple, and the Eumenides. Athene leads the way,” 1003:

προτέραν δ᾽ ἐμὲ χρὴ στείχειν.

The temple-servants follow with lighted torches, serving as an escort to the procession proper. Cf. 1005:

πρὸς φῶς ἱερὸν τῶνδε προπομπών; and 1024: \ ΄. 4 al 4 ξὺν προσπόλοισιν, αἵτε φρουροῦσιν, βρέτας τοὐμὸν δικαίως.

Then come the Areopagites, and lastly the Erinyes them- selves, 1010 ff.:

ς aA : ~ ~ ὑμεῖς δ᾽ ἡγεῖσθε, πολισσοῦχοι παῖδες Κραναοῦ, ταῖσδε μετοίκοις.

1 Schénborn, pp. 129, 134 and 137, and A. Miller, Biihnenalt., p. 119. It seems strange that the latter, while seeing the absurdity of supposing that actors and chorus in such passages are seen by the spectators to depart in differ- ent directions for the same destination, should not have realized that it would be almost as absurd for them to be on widely different levels, separated by an im- passable barrier.

2 See Wecklein, Orestie, note on Eum. 1032.



14 Edward Capps. [ 1891.

Any interpretation of this scene which would make the rear of the procession depart on a different level and by a differ- ent route from that taken by Athene and the Areopagites would ruin its grandeur and impressiveness.

Equally repugnant to our ideas of artistic propriety, as well as in direct contradiction to the words of the text, is the sup- position that in the Septem the semi-choruses do not follow directly after Antigone and Ismene in the funeral trains of Polynices and Eteocles respectively. Cf. 1068 ff. :

e A Ημέχορος Α΄. ἡμεῖς μὲν ἴμεν καὶ συνθάψομεν αἵδε προπομποὶ κτέ. * * * # *

‘Hulyopos Β΄. ἡμεῖς δ᾽ ἅμα τῷδε até.

It is inconceivable that the poet should represent the body and chief mourners as moving off the ‘stage,’ while the principal part of the funeral procession is marching ten feet below, intending to join the body outside. If this division of the chorus was to be at all effective, the second semi- chorus must have openly shared the danger of Antigone. The semi-choruses must have gone over the “stage” or the actors into the orchestra. The analogy of Ecc. 1149, Plut. 1208, and Vesp. 1516 (see p. 18) is decidedly in favor of the latter course. The words of the text alone, apart from aesthetic reasons, demand that all should go out together (cf. προπομποί and ἅμα τῷδε). a The correctness of this view is proven conclusively by com- parison of the scene in the Septem with a similar scene in the Alcestis.1_ Admetus is addressing the chorus, 422 ff. :

ἀλλ, ἐκφορὰν yap τοῦδε θήσομαι νεκροῦ, πάρεστε καὶ μένοντες ἀντηχήσατε παιᾶνα τῷ κάτωθεν ἀσπόνδῳ Bea.

The funeral accordingly takes place, and, as we expect from the above words, the choreutae follow in the procession (cf. 740, στείχωμεν, ὡς ἂν ἐν πυρᾷ θῶμεν νεκρόν). Neither Ad-

1 Cf. Harzmann’s Quaes. Scaen. (Diss. Inaug., Halle, 1889), p. 39.


Vol. xxii.] Lhe Greek Stage. 15

metus nor the chorus is seen again until they return from the tomb, 861 ff. :

+ Ao. ἰώ, στυγναὶ πρόσοδοι, στυγναὶ δ᾽ ὄψεις / / χήρων μελάθρων" * * * * *

/ ἴω fal " Xo. πρόβα πρόβα: βᾶθι κεῦθος οἴκων.

Admetus and the chorus both go out and return together.

The Suppliants of Aeschylus also closes with a procession, consisting of Danaus with his body-guards and the chorus with their attendants. The King bids the chorus go to the city (954 ff.), but before complying they ask that their father be sent to guide them (968 ff.). Accordingly when Danaus arrives (980) with his body-guard (cf. 985 ff.), and after he has given the necessary instructions, we must suppose that they all begin to move off the scene. Danaus, as we should expect, was at their head,! for he was the first to disappear from view, as is shown by the fact that he Says nothing in the last sixty verses of the play.

The chorus of men of Salamis in the Ajax follow the body of their chief in the funeral procession with which the

play closes. This cannot be doubted when we remember that the words 1413 ff.,

> a ἂν κι Λ δ ἄλλ᾿ aye πᾶς, φίλος ὅστις ἀνὴρ \ A 4 φησὶ παρεῖναι, σούσθω, βάτω γδ᾽ > 5 \ “A , te » “Ὁ τῷο ἄνὸρὶ πονῶν τῷ πάντ᾽ ἀγαθῷ > / 4 n ᾿ κοὐδενί πω λῴονι θνητῶν,

could refer to none so well as to the men of the chorus who were devoted adherents of the fallen Ajax.

In the Philoctetes also we find the Same conclusion. Phi- loctetes, Odysseus, Neoptolemus, and the chorus of sailors all go out together. Cf 1469:

χωρῶμεν δὴ πάντες ἀολλεῖς.

1 Schénborn, p- 286, also takes this interpretation here, because he thinks that the chorus was on the “stage” throughout the play. But see Ρ- 36, of this


16 Edward Capps. [1891.

It does not satisfy either the word ἀολλεῖς 1 or the demands of the situation to interpret these words of the chorus as refer- ring only to themselves. We have here a tragedy with a happy ending, where former enemies become reconciled and leave the scene together in token of their reconciliation, such a scene as Aristotle? comments upon as more suitable to comedy than to tragedy.

The chorus of Satyrs in the Cyclops follow Odysseus to his ship. There is no reason here to doubt that they join the company of Odysseus in all respects as do his other attendants. Cf. 708 ff.:

ἡμεῖς δὲ συνναῦταί ye τοῦδ᾽ ᾿Οδυσσέως ὄντες τὸ λοιπὸν Βακχίῳ δουλεύσομεν.

In the Suppliants of Euripides the chorus go with Adras- tus from the scene. Cf. 1232:

; Μ ς στείχωμεν, “Adpacte, KTE.

As will be shown later, Adrastus and the women of the chorus, having the same mission, are together throughout a large portion of the play. It is quite fitting therefore that he, their leader, should conduct them home at the end, just as Danaus leads the chorus in the Suppliants of Aeschylus.

The chorus in the Ion are servants of Creusa, and we may reasonably believe that they attend their mistress as servants at the close of the play when she sets out for her home in Athens. Although there is no direct evidence that they make their exit together, we have learned from the in- stances already cited that a procession was a favorite con- clusion for a drama, and here the situation demands it; the very relation of the chorus to the actors requires this manner of exit.

Although in the Troades the herald of Agamemnon orders Hecabe to follow him (1269), and orders the women of the chorus to wait for the call of the trumpet, yet Hecabe

1 Οἵ, ἀολλεῖς in Trach. 513, of τότ᾽ ἀολλεῖς ἴσαν és μέσον, referring to the fierce hand to hand battle of Acheloiis and Heracles, 2 Poetics, 1453 A, cited by Campbell.

RIS 8 nee ee “ὦ « -_ ne ----.-.

Vol. χχί!.] The Greek Stage. 17

remains until the close of the play, and the chorus leave immediately after her. Cf. 1328 ff.:

¢ ᾿ \ ‘4 / 8.9 Ex. τρομερὰ τρομερὰ μέλεα, φέρετ᾽ ’e- » _ Be _Iae | \ / μον tyvos. ἔπι τάλαιναν 4 e / / οὕὔλειον ἁμέραν βίου.

γ 2\ ͵ , Χο. ἰὼ τάλαινα πόλις - ὅμως δὲ

/ Ν πρόφερε πόδα σὸν ἐπὶ πλάτας ᾿Αχαιῶν.

Here we see clearly the poet’s fondness for the dramatic conclusion which is under consideration. He detained He- cabe so long after the order to depart for this reason —in order to give the play a more impressive close, by having the former queen Hecabe lead the way for her companions to the life of slavery and humiliation.

Frequently we have found this conclusion of a play in tragedy, in comedy it is well nigh the prevailing one. In eight of the eleven plays of Aristophanes the chorus go out in procession! with the actors. Sometimes the effect would be decidedly ludicrous, as in the Acharnians and Wasps ; again it would be grand and impressive, as in the Frogs, which reminds us somewhat of the closing scene in the Eumenides. But whatever its object in individual plays, we can readily see how extremely effective such a close would naturally be. The case in the Acharnians ? is clear from 1231 ff. :

Ai ἕπεσθέ 16 DTH

K. €7éoUVE νυν AOOVTES τήνελλα καλλίνικος. 7 > >. 2 /

Xo. add’ ἑψόμεσθα σὴν χάριν Kré.

In the Frogs, Aeschylus is escorted with great pomp from the lower world by the chorus of Mystae, accompanied by Dionysus and Xanthias. Cf. 1524 ff.:

1 The same argument is advanced by Professor White in his article The Stage in Aristophanes, Harvard Studies, 1891. The present paper was completed before the appearance of that article, and its conclusions, though similar in several important details, were reached independently. References are given to Pro- fessor White’s article in every ‘case, I think, of noteworthy agreement or disagree- ment.

* Droysen, p. 8, agrees with this obviously correct view. Muhl, p. 20, fol- lowing Schénborn, opposes, but on very weak grounds.

18 Edward Capps.

Πλούτων. daivete τοίνυν ὑμεῖς τούτῳ λαμπάδας ἱεράς, χἅμα προπέμπετε τοῖσιν τούτου τοῦτον μέλεσιν.

At the close of the Ecclesiazusz, Blepyrus goes into the orchestra and heads the procession, in which the chorus joins. Cf. 1149 ff.:

Br. ἐγὼ δὲ πρὸς τὸ δεῖπνον ἤδη ᾿πείξομαι" ἔχω δέ τοι καὶ dada ταυτηνὶ καλῶς.

Xo. τί δῆτα διατρίβεις ἔχων, ἀλλ᾽ οὐκ ἄγεις τασδὶ λαβών; ἐν ὅσῳ δὲ καταβαίνεις, ἐγὼ

2 , / / ETATOMAL μέλος TL μελλοδειπνικόν.

* * * * ~ “ὦ \ κρητικῶς οὖν τὼ πόδε \ ry 6 καὶ ov κίνει. BX. τοῦτο δρῶ.

With these last ψογάβ,: Blepyrus takes his position at the head of the line and begins the dance with which the play ends. This is very similar to the action at the end of the Plutus and the Wasps. In the former the choreutae with- draw to one side, while the procession bound for the temple of Athene marches from the house. At the fitting time they attach themselves to the line, bringing up the rear with songs. Cf. 1208 ff. :

r > \ a) > a Xo. οὐκ ἔτι τοίνυν εἰκὸς μέλλειν οὐδ᾽ ἡμᾶς, ἀλλ᾽ ἀναχωρεῖν » A , 4 v ¢ ἐς τοὔπισθεν" δεῖ yap κατόπιν τούτων ἄδοντας ἕπεσθαι.

In the Wasps the sons of Carcinus appear in response to Philocleon’s challenge of tragic poets to a contest in dancing. The contest takes place. That it takes place in the orchestra is shown by the fact that the choreutae draw back to make room for the dancers, just as in the Plutus they make room for those who are coming from the house. Cf. 1516 ff.:

φέρε νυν ἡμεῖς αὐτοῖς ὀλίγον ξυγχωρήσωμεν ἅπαντες,

iv ἐφ᾽ ἡσυχίας ἡμῶν πρόσθεν βεμβικίξζωσιν ἑαυτούς. At last, at the conclusion of the contest, they all leave the scene together, dancing. Cf. 1535 ff.:

1 But see White, l.c. p. 169, who assigns them to the chorus.

Vol. xxii.] Ihe Greek Stage.

ἀλλ᾽ ἐξάγετ', εἴ τι φιλεῖτ᾽ ὀρχούμενοι, θύραξε ἡμᾶς ταχύ.

We have already shown (ρΡ.11) how the chorus of women and the chorus of men in the Lysistrata leave the orchestra and enter the house in the background, and how at the con- clusion of the feast, after they have again made their appear- ance, they are joined by the Athenians and Laconians who have heretofore been actors. Cf. 1272 ff.:

/ 4 9 Avo. ἀπάγεσθε ταύτας Λάκωνες, τασδεδὶ e ~ > \ ~ ὑμεῖς - ἀνὴρ δὲ Tapa γυναῖκα καὶ γυνὴ 7 > στήτω παρ᾽ ἄνδρα, KTE.

Then follow two choral passages by Athenians and Laconians respectively, during which they all go out together.

The Peace, like the Birds, closes with a bridal procession. We have seen that in the latter the procession goes into the dwelling represented inthe scene. Here, however, the dwell- ing is the starting point, the country is the destination, as we see from 1316,' χρὴ τὴν νύμφην ἔξω τινὰ δεῦρο κομίζειν, and also from 1329, δεῦρ᾽ γύναι εἰς ἀγρόν. One semi-chorus es- corts the bridegroom, the other the bride (Schénborn, p. 341).

ΟΥ̓: Χο. ἀλλ᾽ ἀράμενοι φέρω- μεν οἱ προτεταγμένοι τὸν νυμφίον ὦνδρες. Τρ. χαίρετε χαίρετ' ἄν- ὃρες, κἂν ξυνέπησθέ μοι πλακοῦντας ἔδεσθε.

To these passages from tragedy and comedy should be added the entirely anomalous exodos of the Prometheus. The Oceanides are with Prometheus, but are warned by Hermes to leave him, lest they too receive harm when he is punished.

1 Verse 1312, ἀλλ᾽ πρὸ τοῦ πεινῶντες ἐμβάλλεσθε τῶν λαγῴων is only the mo- tiving of the advance of the chorus toward the “stage.” They do not at once attack the viands, for no time is given, and the last verse of the play, quoted above, shows that they have not yet eaten. See, however, White, p. 165.

20 Ledward Capps. [1891.

They refuse, declaring it their purpose to suffer with him. 1058 ff. :

‘Ep. ἀλλ᾽ οὖν ὑμεῖς γ᾽ ai πημοσύναις συγκάμνουσαι ταῖς τοῦδε τόπων μετά ποι χωρεῖτ᾽ ἐκ τῶνδε θοῶς, KTE.

* * * * *

Xo. peta τοῦδ᾽ ὅτι χρὴ πάσχειν ἐθέλω.

And so, when the great convulsion of nature comes, they are engulfed along with Prometheus.!

We have seen that a natural interpretation of the words of the text, assuming that the arrangement of the thea- tre offered no obstacle to free and natural action, reveals the fact that in twenty? plays actors and chorus make their exit at the end of the piece together and through the same passage-way. In each one of these plays, therefore, it was necessary for either the actors or the chorus to pass over the dividing line between “stage” and orchestra. In still other plays* the student may find that purely artistic reasons de- mand the same conclusion, especially since we know that it was decidedly a favorite conclusion with the classical as it is with the modern dramatists. It gives an opportunity to the poet to group together in one suggestive tableau those in whom the interest of the spectators had been centred.

4. Chorus and Actors enter together. The converse of the dramatic conclusion just mentioned, viz. : for the chorus to make their appearance in company with actors, would serve no such artistic purpose, and is by no means so fre- quent. We have shown that actors and chorus enter together in the midst of the play in the Alcestis. In the Ecclesia- zusae the women who form the chorus are in the éarly part

1 This is the only natural interpretation of the words of the text. So Wil: mowitz-Méellendorf, l.c., p. 610. Wecklein, note ad loc., says that verses 1071-79 merely motive the exit of the chorus from the orchestra, to avoid the use of the machina” again, and that the chorus sink through the dvarlecua of the orchestra, Prometheus through that of the stage’!

2 In three (Choéphori, Persians, and Birds) into the palace.

8 As for example in the Trachiniae, according to Schénborn, p. 134.

Vol. xxii.] Ihe Greek Stage. 21

of the play actors, or at least not to be distinguished from the actors. They come out from the house (see p. 9) and soon

.are in the orchestra, practising for the ecclesia (see p. 20).

Later in the play (478 ff.) the same women, both actors and chorus, who participated in the opening scene reappear, re- turning from the ecclesia. They would most naturally come in by the same entrance, even Praxagora, though she entered after the rest (500). In the Plutus Carion is sent out to summon his master’s friends. He returns with them, 253, but they do not reach the house of Chremylus until 315, although they hasten (cf. 255-8). They must have come in together through the orchestra, just as do Pisthetaerus and Euelpides in the Birds. During the whole scene Carion is evidently hurrying on; the old men, grumbling at his haste, trying to keep up with him, are all the while closely engaged in conversation with him.?, The words of Carion in 295 and 308 (ἕπεσθε) may be quoted as further proof. In 321 Carion goes into the house.

We can hardly avoid the conclusion that the chorus enter in a similar way in the Electra of Euripides. Electra has been to the spring for water, and is now slowly returning, chanting her lament. Orestes catches sight of her at 107; her song continues until 166. If, as Schoénborn believes, she appeared from the right side door of the scene, the middle door representing her home, she would have had _ scarcely time to sing so long an ode. But when at its conclusion she is accosted by the girls of the chorus, she is still, apparently, at some distance from the house, far she does not see the two men at the door for fifty verses (215). She seems there- fore to be coming slowly from the parodos through the or- chestra when the chorus enter from the opposite parodos, in- vite her to the festival, and express their sympathy. All the

1 There can be no doubt that they enter together, and the interval between 253 and 315 is too long for a parodos from the wings. See note on p. 9.

2 According to Niejahr, De Poll. loco, p. x1, though he tries to limit the intermingling of actors and chorus, this feature of the passage would in itself decide for our explanation, “Immo quam maximo jure de universis fabulis mihi videor statuere eos qui inter se colloquantur actores, nisi singularibus de causis disjungendi erant, eodem loco debere versari.”

22 Edward Capps. [1891.

while, as they converse they are slowly moving towards the house, so absorbed that they do not see Orestes and Pylades until they are near the door. Then Electra, being somewhat in advance, runs toward the house, directing the chorus to flee along the path by which they had come in together. Cf.

218 ff. :

aA \ \ 3 > 4 ὩΣ. \ φυγῇ σὺ