UNITED STATES

EXPLORING EXPEDITION.

BY AUTHORITY OF CONGRESS,

%

1858

UNITED STATES

EXPLORING EXPEDITION.

DURING THE YEARS

1838, 1839, 1840, 1841, 1842.

UNDER THE COMMAND OF

CHARLES WILKES, U.S.N. YOL XX.

HERPETOLOGY.

(^9 f; ^

, V7X-<Sa-

A

PREPARED UNDER THE SUPERINTENDENCE OF

S; F. BAIRD.

WITH A FOLIO ATLAS.

PHILADELPHIA: FEINTED BY C. SHEEMAN & SON.

1858.

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INTRODUCTION.

The Joint Committee of the Library of Congress entered into an engagement with the undersigned, in 1851, to prepare the Report upon the Herpetological collections made by the United States Ex- ploring Expedition. Finding that other duties would interfere with the proper performance of the work, he was permitted to associate Dr. Girard with him in its execution ; by whom the determinations and descriptions have been made, the drawings overlooked, and the work carried through the press.

S. F. BAIRD.

WAsmNGTON, Maj, 1858,

CONTENTS.

TITLE,

INTRODUCTION,

CONTENTS, ....

Ordo I.— BATRACHIA,

Tribus L— BATRACHIA tJRODELA, a. TREMATODEIRA, /S. ATRETODEIRA, Fam. SALAMANDRIDAE, . Genus Taricha,

Taricha torosa, Fam. PLETHODONTIDAE, Genus Anaides, .

AnAIDES LUGUBRIS, .

Genus Heredia, .

HeREDIA OREGONENSIS)

Genus Xiphonura,

XiPHONURA TENEBROSA,

Teibus II.— BATRACHIA ANURA, Fam. RANIDAE, . Genus Rana,

1. Rana aurora,

2. Rana pretiosa,

3. Rana draytoni, .

4. Rana maritima, Genus Leptodactylus,

1. Leptodacxylus ocellatus,

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CONTENTS.

2. Leptodactyltjs caliginosus, Genus Cystignathtjs,

1. Cystignathus nebiilosus,

2. Cystignathtjs parvttltjs, Genus Pleueodema, .

1. Pleurodema bibroni,

2. Pleurodema elegans, Genus "Wagleria,

Waglbria peroni, . Genus Eanidella,

Ranidella signifera, Fam. HYLIDAE, Genus Ranoidea,

1. Ranoidea resplendens,

2. Ranoidea flato-tiridis, Genus Hylarana,

Hylarana mindanensis, Genus Halophila,

1. Halophila heros,

2. Halophila vitiensis,

3. Halophila dorsualts, Genus Hyla,

1. Hyla regilla,

2. Hyla cyanea, Genus Hylodes,

Hylodes partus, Genus Elosia,

1. Elosia nasuta,

2. Elosia bufonium,

3. Elosia vomerina, Fam. BUFONIDAE,

Genus Rhinoderma,

Rhinoderma signifera, Genus Bufo,

1. Bufo boreas,

2. Bufo columbiensis, .

3. Bufo marinus,

4. Bufo gracilis,

5. Bufo lugubrosus,

6. Bufo thaul, . 1. Bufo poeppigii, . 8. Bufo melanostictus,

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CONTENTS.

IX

Genus Bttfonella, .

bufonella crttcifera, . Gektjs Metaeus,

MeTAETTS TIMIDITS,

Genus Brachycephalus,

BrACHYCEPHALUS AURANTIACUS;

Ordo II.— OPHIDIA,

Genus Sabrina, .

Sabrina tessellata, Genus Cylindrophis,

Cylindrophis rufa, Genus Wenona, .

1. Wenona plumbea,

2. Wenona Isabella, Genus Morelia,

morelia argus, . Genus Enygrus,

Enygrus bibroni, Genus Rabdion,

Rabdion occipitale, Genus Lodia,

LoDiA tenuis, Genus Contia,

contia mitis, Genus Bascanion,

Bascanion vetustus, Genus Dendrophis, .

1. Dendrophis picta,

2. Dendrophis prasinus, Genus Pituophis,

1. Pituophis catenifer,

2. Pituophis wilkesi, . Genus Callirhinus,

Callirhinus patagoniensis,

Genus Sibynon,

Sibynon nebulatus, Tropidonotus junceus,

Genus Eutaenia,

1. Eutaenia infernalis,

2. Eutaenia pickeringi,

3. Eutaenia leptocephala,

4. Eutaenia ordinoides,

c

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CONTENTS.

5. eutaenia tageans, •: . Genus Cantoeia,

Cantoeia yiolacea,

LlOPHIS MEEREMI,

Drommicxts temmincki, Lygophis elegans, Amphiesma ehodomelas, Xenodon ancorus, Eeythrolamprxjs venutissimxjs.

Genus Ceeberus,

Cerberus boaeformis,

Genus Tachymenis,

Tachymenis chilensis,

Genus Doliophis,

doliophis flayiceps, Pseudelaps psammophis,

Genus Platurus,

1. Platurus laticaudatus,

2. Platurus colubrinus, Genus Pelamys,

Pelamys bicoloe, Genus Crotalus,

CrOTALUS LUCIFER, .

Ordo III.— SAURIA, .... Fam. VARANIDAE, Genus Hydrosaurus,

Hydrosaurus tarius, Fam. LACERTIDAE,

SuBFAM. COELODONTES, . Genus Lacerta, .

Lacerta maderensis, SuBFAM. PLEODONTES, Genus Teius,

Teius teguixin, . Fam. ZONURIDAE, Genus Elgaria, .

1. Elgaria Formosa,

2. Elgaria scincicauda,

3. Elgaria grandis,

4. Elgaria principis, Fam. AMPHISBAENIDAE,

Genus Cephalopeltis, .

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XI

Cephalopeltis scutigera, . Fam. SCINCIDAE, .... SuBFAM. OPHIOPHTHALMI, Genus Cryptoblepharus,

1. Cryptoblepharus plagiocephalus,

2. Cryptoblepharus eximius, . SuBFAM. SAUROPHTHALMI,

Genus Ophiodes,

Ophiodes striatus, . Genus Tiliqua, ....

TiLIQUA RUFESCENS, .

Genus Euprepis,

Euprepis venustus, . Genus Cyclodus,

Cyclodus gigas, . ,

Genus Cyclodina, ,

Cyclodina aenea, Genus Hombronia, . .

1. Hombronia undosa,

2, Hombronia fasciolaris, , Genus OligosomAj

1. OlIGOSOMA ZELANDICUMj

2, Oligosoma noctuum, Genus Lygosomella, . . »

Lygosomella aestuosa, Genus Lipinia, . . ,

LiPINIA VULCANIA,

Genus Hinulia, ....

HlNULTA TAENIOLATA,

Genus Mabuya, ....

Mabuya agilis, , ,

Genus Emoa, . . , ,

1. Emoa atrocostata,

2. Emoa samoensis,

3. Emoa nigrita,

4. Emoa cyanura, > Fam. GEKKOTIDAE, .

Genus Gehyra, . . .

1. Gehyra oceanica,

2. Gehyra vorax, QrENUs Peropus,

1. Peropus mutilatus, .

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CONTENTS.

2. PjCROPTJS NEGIiECTrS, .

Genus Dactylopertjs, .

Dactylopertjs insulensis. . Genus Crossurus,

Crossurus platyurus, Genus Hemidactylus, .

1. Hemidactylus mabuia,

2. Hemidactylus cyanodactylus, Genus Doryura,

doryura vulpecula, Genus Ascalabotes,

Ascalabotes delalandii, Genus Gekko,

1. Gekko indicus,

2. Gekko monarchus, Genus Hoplodactylus, .

hoplodactylus pomarii, Genus Diplodactylus, .

dlplodactylus vittatus, Genus Discodactylus, .

discodactylus phacophorus, Genus Phyllurus,

Phyllurus platurus, .

Genus Goniodactylus, .

Goniodactylus marmoratus, Genus Heteronota,

Heteronota pelagica, Genus Naultinus,

Naultinus punctatus, Fam. IGUANIDAE, . SuBFAM. PLEURODONTES, . Genus Microlophus,

microlophus peruvianus, . Genus Taraguira,

Taraguira tobquata, Genus Saccodeira,

Saccodeira ornatissima, Genus Proctotretus,

Subgenus Proctotretus,

1. Proctotretus splendidus,

2. Proctotretus pectinatus, Subgenus Liolaemus^

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CONTENTS.

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LlOLAEMUS NITIDUS,

Subgenus Liodeiba,

llodeira chilensis, Subgenus Ptychodeira,

1. Ptychodeira gracilis, .

2. Ptychodeira femorata,

3. Ptychodeira stantoni, .

4. Ptychodeira cyanogaster, .

5. Ptychodeira intermedia,

6. Ptychodeira mosaica, Subgenus Rhytidodeira,

1. Rhytidodeira kingi,

2. Rhytidodeira magellanica,

3. Rhytidodeira bibroni,

4. Rhytidodeira wiegmanni,

5. Rhytidodeira nigromaculata,

6. Rhytidodeira oxycephala, Subgenus Eulaemus,

1. Eulaemus tenuis,

2. Eulaemus darwini, .

3. Eulaemus pictus,

4. Eulaemus fitzingeri,

5. Eulaemus affinis,

6. Eulaemus signifer, .

7. Eulaemus maculatus, Subgenus Ortholaemus,

1. Ortholaemus beaglii,

2. Ortholaemus multimaculatus,

3. Ortholaemus fitzroii, . Genus Brachylophus, ....

Brachylophus fasciatus, . Genus Sceloporus, ....

1. Sceloporus undulatus, .

2. Sceloporus occidentalis, .

3. Sceloporus frontalis, .

4. Sceloporus gracilis, Genus Phrynosoma,

Subgenus Tapaya, ....

1. Tapaya orbicularis,

2. Tapaya hebnandesi, ,3. Tapaya ornatissima,

4. Tapaya brevirostris, >

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CONTENTS.

5. Tafaya dotjglassi,

SXJBGEKITS BaTBACHOSOMA, .

Batrachosoma coronatum, Subgenus Phrynosoma,

1. Phrynosoma cornutum,

2. Phrynosoma regale, Subgenus Doliosaurus,

1. Doliosaurus m'calli,

2. Doliosaurus platyrhinos,

3. Doliosaurus modestus, SuBFAM. ACRODONTES,

Genus Bronchocela,

Bronchocela cristatella, . Genus Amphibolurus, .

1. Amphibolurus muricatus,

2. Amphibolurus maculiferus, Genus Oreodeira,

Oreodeira gracilipes, . Ordo IV.— CHELONIA, .... Sub-Ordo I.— CHELONII, Fam. CHELONIDAE, . Genus Thalassochelys,

Thalassochelys corticata, Genus Lepidochelys,

1. Lepidochelys olivacea,

2. Lepidochelys dussumieri, Remarks on Chelonia virgata, Schw., Genus Caretta, ....

1. Caretta imbricata,

2. Caretta squamosa, .

3. Caretta rostrata. Genus Euchelys,

EuCHELYS MACROPUS,

Remarks on the Genus Halichelys of F Genus Chelonia,

1. Chelonia viridis,

2. Chelonia maculosa,

3. Chelonia marmorata,

4. Chelonia Formosa,

5. Chelonia tenuis, Sub^Ordo II.— TESTUDINATA,

Fam. HYDRASPIDES,

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CONTENTS. '■ XV

Chelymys macquaria, ....... 4:()2

. Fam. EMYDIDAE, 463

SuBFAM. CLEMMYDIDAE, 464

Genus Actinemys, ....... 464

actinemys marmobata, ...... 465

Fam. TESTUDINIDAE, 470

Genus Testudo, . . . . . . 470

Testudo australis, . . . . . . 470

INDEX, . -473

Oedo I. BATRACHIA.

The reptiles known under the vernacular names of salamanders, frogs, tree-frogs, and toads, together with the group of Ceciloid, con- stitute the natural order of Batrachians. The peculiar metamorphoses which some of them undergo, have made of them one of the most in- teresting group of animals both to physiologists and zoologists.

In one tribe, these metamorphoses are of a very prominent order : we allude to the frogs and toads. The tadpoles, as the young of these latter are called, are provided with a tail, wanting at the same time both pairs of legs. They, furthermore, lead a purely aquatic life ; breathing through the means of gills, situated on either side of the neck, altogether unprotected, and fish-like in their external aspect. By degrees the legs make their appearance, and the tail diminishing, until it is entirely absorbed. Meanwhile the lungs are developed, and the gills atrophy ; a complete change in their mode of life takes place : they leave the water and take to the dry land.

The majority of the caudate Batrachians ( Urodela), undergo likewise metamorphoses in their mode of breathing : at first, this act is per- formed through the means of gills, whose function is gradually super- seded by that of the lungs.

From this twofold mode of life of these Batrachians, the Order to which they belong has often been called the Order of Amphibia.

The structure of the heart and the system of circulation has led some naturalists to look upon the Batrachians as constituting a class by themselves, more intimately allied to the class of fishes than to that of reptiles, properly so called. That structure, added to the metamor- phoses above alluded to, and to the facts, that there are no external organs of generation in the males, and that the external envelope of

1

2 BATEACHIA.

the eggs is membranous, which eggs are mostly laid before the act of fecundation takes place, are, indeed, strong analogies of what is ob- served in most fishes. Still, the general opinion now is, that the affinities of the Batrachians with the other reptiles are most intimate, and that their true place in the organic scale, is in the latter class, in which they constitute a natural order.

The true affinities of the Batrachians with the other reptiles, con- sist in the structure of their skeleton : there are two occipital con- dyles uniting the skull to the vertebral column, and in the majority of them we observe a distinct sternum, although not combined with the ribs, themselves rather short.

Tribus I. BATRACHIA URODELA.

Body elongated, lacertiform, tapering, provided with a tail in the adult as well as in the young; having generally four limbs, and sometimes only two; the fingers and toes being always clawless. Skin naked, either perfectly smooth, warty, or granular. There are teeth on both jaws, and often on the vomer and sphenoid bones also. No external auricular aperture. Inner nostrils situated in the middle of the palate. Vent longitudinal. Neither sternum nor clavicle.

^YN.— Uroddes, DuM. Zool. anal. 1806.— DuM. & Bibr. Erpet. g^n. VIII, 1841 15 &, IX, 1854, 1. B , , ;

Observ.— Generally known under the name of salamanders, in op- position to the frogs and toads, and which constitute the tribe of ecaudate Batrachians {Batrachia anura), the caudate Batrachians {Batrachla urodela), resemble the lizards in their general appearance, and are often confounded with them by the uninitiated. A feature by which they can at once be distinguished from the lizards, consists in their naked skin ; whilst lizards exhibit either scales of various forms and structure, else granular epidermic indurations of a peculiar type. Besides, should the integuments leave us in doubt as to the nature of the animals under consideration, there are other characters to which

BATRACHIAURODELA, 3

we may have recourse. Thus, whatever be the number of fingers and toes, they are always clawless in these Batrachians, for, the geckos, which are amongst lizards those that might be mistaken for them, although deficient in the development of their toes, will, never- theless, always exhibit enough of these organs to guide the observer without any difficulty. The absence of external auricular apertures, is another feature peculiar to the tailed Batrachians, and but seldom met with amongst lizards ; and, finally, the longitudinal anal aperture is not the least amongst the distinguishing traits of these two divisions of animals.

The tailed Batrachians subdivide into two groups :

a. TKEMATODEIRA,

"Where we observe either external or internal gills persisting through- out life. When the gills are internal, there are branchial fissures or apertures on the sides of the neck.

Syn. —TrSmatodhres, DuM. & BiBR. Erpet. g6n. VIII, 1841, 53 j &, IX, 1854, 174, Observ.— None of which were collected by the Expedition.

13., ATRETODEIRA.

When fully grown there are neither external nor internal gills, hence no branchial apertures. The young, however, are provided with external gills, which they gradually lose in growing up to maturity. At this latter period of their existence, the lungs are called into play, through the means of which they breathe the atmospheric air.

8yn. —Atraodbres, DuM. & Bibr. Erpet. gen. VHI, 1841, 53 ; &, IX, 1854, 36.

Observ. The species of Urodelian Batrachians collected by the Expedition are but four in number, all of which belong to the second group, that in which the gills and branchial apertures become oblite- rated when entering upon the period of maturity, or full-grown state.

These four species are distributed into four genera, one of which belongs to the family of ' Salamandridae, and the three others to that of Pletjiodontidae, '

BATRACHIA.

Fam. salamandeidae.

Palatine teeth extant, and disposed upon two diverging or else parallel series, along the inner hinder edge of the vomero-palatine bones, which are elongated. Sphenoid bone toothless.

Syn. Salamandridae, Gray, Ann. of Philos, 1825, 215. BoNAP. Saggio Distr. inetod. Anim. vertebr. 1831, 84.— Gray, Catal. Amph. Brit. Mus. II, 1850, 14.

Obsery. All the genera which constitute the present family are characterized by the peculiar disposition of the palatine teeth, which are arranged upon two longitudinal series ; " one on the inner hinder edge of each of the elongated triangular vomerine bones," as observed by J. E. Gray. The sphenoid bone is toothless. The tongue is broad ; free laterally, and more or less free also posteriorly.

Genus TAKICHA, Gray.

Gen. Char. Head broad, depressed. Snout protruding slightly beyond the lower jaw. Tongue rather small, rounded or elliptical, attached by almost its whole under surface. Palatine teeth dis- posed upon two longitudinal series, forming an elongated and very acute angle. Maxillary teeth rather small. Tail very long and compressed. Four fingers and five toes, entirely free, broad and depressed. Skin either smooth or granular.

Syn.— ^anc/m, Gray, Catal. Amph. Brit. Mus, II, 1850, 25.

Observ.— With a general resemblance to Tritons, the species of this genus may be readily distinguished from the latter by the inconspicu- ousness of the maxillary teeth, by a much smaller tongue, and by the absence of a series of pores on either side of the abdomen.

Eschscholtz, in his " Zoologischer Atlas," has furnished us with valuable information regarding the anatomical structure and zoological characters of this genus.

Two species of the genus Tariclia have so far been described ; both inhabiting the western coast of North America. One of these was

BATRACHIAURODELA. §

brought home by the Expedition ; is figured and described further on ; the other was collected at San Francisco, Cal., by Dr. John L, Leconte, and recorded under the name of TaricJia Icevis ;* it being perfectly smooth, and furthermore distinguished from Taricha torosa by proportionally smaller eyes and more elongated toes.

Hallowell's Salamandra luguhris, doubtfully referred by J. E. Grayf to the genus TaricJia, is entirely distinct from the latter, and consti- tutes now the genus Anaides, described further on.

Taricha torosa, Gray. (Plate I, figs. 1-8.)

Spec. Char. Tail longer than the head and body together, com- pressed, provided with a slightly elevated membranous keel upon its upper and lower edges. Tip of toes callous ; inner toe in both pair of limbs very small. Skin granular. Color blackish-brown above, with minute pale dots ; sides of abdomen orange ; beneath yellowish.

^Y^.— Triton torosus, EsGHSCH. ZooL Atl. V. 1833, 12. Taf. xxi, fig. 15.

Triton ermani, WiEGM. in Erman's Reise um die Erde, 1835, ;

and Arch, fiir Naturg. 1836, II, 250.

Salamandra beeclieyi, GrRAY, in Beechey's Voy. to the Pacif. Zool. 1839, 99.

Triton gramdosus, Skilt. Amer. Journ. of Sci. YII, 1849, 202. PI. figs. 4 and 5.

Notophthalmus torosus^ Baird, Journ. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philad. Second Series, I, 1850, 284.

Pleurodeles californiae, BiBR. in Mus. Zool. Soc. London. (Fide G-ray.)

Taricha torosa, Gray, Catal. Amph. Brit. Mus. II, 1850, 25.

Descr. The head is broad and depressed, the upper surface being subconvex. Viewed from above, it is subelliptical in shape, longer than broad. The snout is subtruncated, and the temporal region swollen. The eyes are of medium size, elliptical in shape. The dis- tance between the anterior rim of the eye and the extremity of the snout is eqiml to one and a half diameter of the eye. The nostrils are subterminal, and far apart. The upper jaw overlaps the lower, the mouth being but moderately cleft, and extending posteriorly a

* Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philad. YI, 1853, 302. t Catal. Amph. Brit. Mus. Part II, 1850, 26 2

6 BATRACHIA.

little beyond the posterior rim of the orbit. When the mouth is closed, its posterior third is entirely overlapped by a horny expansion of the upper jaw. The teeth, on both jaws, are very minute, slender and acute, disposed upon one irregular row. The vomero -palatine teeth are not conspicuous, and in order to ascertain their presence a magni- fying glass is required.

The body is subcylindrical ; thickest upon its middle, and dimi- nishing slightly anteriorly, more so posteriorly. The tail, longer than the body and head together, is very much compressed, roundish upon its origin, but very thin towards its posterior extremity. It is pro- vided, above and below, with a membranous, fin-like expansion, extending from near the base to its very tip.

The fore and hind limbs are almost of the same stoutness and length ; the toes, in both, are depressed. The anterior limbs have four toes, the innermost of which being very small ; the third is the longest ; the second a little shorter than the third ; the fourth, or outermost, being still shorter than the second. There are five toes to the hind limbs ; the innermost, the smallest ; the outermost, a little larger than the latter ; the third, the longest ; the second, a little shorter than the fourth. The extremities are callous in all.

The skin, owing to the presence of small tubercles, has a granulated appearance throughout. The tubercles are irregularly distributed all over the head, body, tail, and membranous expansion, limbs, toes, and under surface of the body and head ; nearly as thickly beset on one region, as on the other, mayhap, a little more numerous upon the head. The tubercles themselves are smooth ; the intervening space is covered with exceedingly minute granules.

No sooner immersed in alcohol, specimens contract considerably, and then exhibit folds of the skin, which are not observed on live individuals. There are no systems or series of pores visible upon any region of the body, as is the case in Tritons. Minute pores are scattered all over the body, in the same manner as the tubercles themselves.

The color of the head, body, and limbs, is brownish-black above ; reddish-brown, in specimens preserved in alcohol. The iris is black. Small light spots may be seen upon the head and anterior portion of the body. The sides of the abdomen and limbs, also the lower por- tion of the tail, are reddish-orange. The inferior surface of the head, belly, and limbs, is dull-yellow or brownish-yellow.

BATEACHIA URODELA. f

Many specimens of this species were collected in 1841, at Nisqually, Puget Sound (Oregon), and San Francisco (California). The sketch from life was made from Puget's Sound specimens by Jos. Drayton.

Plate I, fig. 1, represents Taricha torosa ; size of life and in profile.

Fig. 2, exhibits the under surface of the same specimen.

Fig. 3, is an outline of the head, seen from above, showing the wide interocular space.

Fig. 4, shows the head in profile, and exhibits the cleft of the mouth.

Fig. 5, is a front view of the head.

Fig. 6, a view of the inferior floor of the mouth, in order to show the shape and size of the tongue.

Fig. 7, is the upper floor of the mouth, exhibiting the inner nostrils, and the position of the teeth.

Fig. 8, represents a magnified portion of the skin, taken upon the dorsal region, giving an idea of its structure.

Fam. PLETHODONTIDAE.

Vomero-palatine teeth disposed upon one series across the posterior extremity of the vomerine bones, thus constituting a cross band behind the inner nostrils, in front of the palate. Sphenoid often- times covered with teeth. Vomerine bone broad and short. Skin generally smooth, rarely granular, and without any series of pores.

SYN.—Flethodontidae, Gray, Catal. Amph. Brit. Mus. II, 1850, 31.

Observ. The above characters of the Plethodont family are mostly derived from the " Catalogue of Amphibia in the British Museum."

Genus AN AIDES, Bated. •'

Gen. Char. Head, subelliptical, broader than the body; snout, bluntly truncated, and protruding beyond the lower jaw. Cleft of the mouth, undulating, as in the alligator. Maxillary teeth very large, compressed, lanceolated, and sharp, with edge minutely

g BATRACHIA.

crenated; largest upon the lower jaw, and all, apparently, un- attached to the bone, but united to the gum, and admitting of a depression backwards. Yomero-palatine teeth inconspicuous ; dis- posed upon an obtuse-angled triangle, behind the inner nostrils, which consist merely in a notch in the posterior edge of the palatine floor. Sphenoid teeth in two elongated and approximated patches. Tongue large, cordiform, attached along its median line only. Eyes, large and prominent. Limbs, rather slender ; four fingers and five toes, slender, free, and terminated by a small rounded callous disk. Tail, subcy- lindrical, slightly compressed and attenuated. Skin smooth and soft.

Syn. Anaides, Baird, Iconogr. Eacy. II (1st ed.), 1849, 256.

Obsery. The affinities of this genus will place it near PletJiodon, in a natural method, perhaps, even between the latter and Desmognathus.

Anaides lugubris, Baird.

(Plate I, figs. 26-33.)

Spec. Char. Body rounded. A fold of the skin under the neck. Tail, tapering; almost as long as the body and head together. Inner finger and toe quite small. Uniform dark-olive above, light- olive beneath. Sometimes scattered yellowish spots over the head, sides, and back.

Syn. Salamandra luguhris, HALLOW. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philad. IV, 1848, 126.

Anaides luguhris, Baird, Iconogr. Encycl. II (1st ed.), 1849, 256. B. & G. in Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philad. VI, 1853, 302.

Taricha luguhris, Gray, Catal. Amph. Brit. Mus. Part II, 1850, 26.

Descr. The head is elongated ; very much depressed, flattened, and, when viewed from above, has almost an elliptical appearance. The snout is very prominent, protruding beyond the lower jaw. The nostrils are elevated ; lateral, subterminal, and far apart. The eyes, very prominent ; their diameter enters only once in the distance between their anterior rim and the extremity of the snout. The cleft of the mouth is large and undulating. The maxillary teeth are proportionally large, especially on the lower jaw ; they are lanceo-

BATRACHIAURODELA. 0

lated in shape ; very acute and tliin. The palatine teeth are incon- spicuous, rather blunt, disposed upon an open V-shaped figure, the summit of which being directed backwards, whilst its branches extend to the internal and posterior margin of the inner nostrils. There are two elongated patches of minute teeth on the sphenoid, closely approximating anteriorly and diverging slightly posteriorly, where they are rounded and broadest. The cordiform or peltate tongue fills the whole space of the inferior floor of the mouth ; it is attached along its medial line, whilst its sides are perfectly free, as is also, slightly, its tapering tip and its posterior bilobed expansion.

The neck is elongated, and slightly contracted ; a distinct and well- marked gular fold may be observed on the specimens before us. It will be important to ascertain whether that fold exists during life, since its presence has been contested by some writers.

The body is subfusiform, diminishing towards both extremities. The sides of the abdomen are transversely folded, mayhap, an effect of artificial contraction. The tail is almost as long as the head and body together ; it is subcylindrical, somewhat compressed, and taper- ing away ; its upper and lower edges are rounded.

The limbs, generally speaking, are slender, the posterior ones a little longer and stouter than the anterior. When the former are brought forwards, and the latter backwards, alongside the body, the toes of either are caused to meet with each other. The toes them- selves are slender, entirely free, and terminated by a callous, disk-like expansion, resembling, in that respect, the species of the genus (Edi- pus. The anterior inner toe is quite small ; the third is the longest ; the second, nearly equal in size to the fourth. The posterior inner toe is small also j the third and fourth are the longest, and almost equal in length ; the second and fourth, again, are nearly equal.

The skin appears quite smooth ; when examined under the micro- scope, however, it is found to contain a meshwork of minute, irregu- larly stelliform bodies, as exhibited (though very imperfectly) in figure 33, each stella having a hollow or clear centre.

The color, as preserved on specimens in alcohol, is of a uniform dark-olive above, and light-yellow beneath.

Collected at San Francisco, California.

Plate I, fig. 26, represents Anaides luguhris, size of life, in profile.

10 B A T R A C H I A. ' '

Fig. 27, exhibits the under surface of the same animal.

Fig. 28, is a view of the head from above, showing the distance between the eyes.

Fig. 29, a profile of the head, showing the undulated cleft of the mouth.

Fig. 30, is a front view of the head.

Fig. 31, the inferior floor of the mouth, showing the tongue.

Fig. 32, the upper floor of the mouth, exhibiting the patches of sphenoid teeth, the disposition of the vomero-palatine ones, and the inner nostrils.

Fig. 33, a somewhat magnified view of a fragment of skin, exhibit- ing the granules it contains. Under a higher power, these granules are irregularly star-like in shape.

Genus HEREDIA, Girard.

Car. gen. Oajpite suhelUjyiico, et quam corpus ampliore; rostro ohtiteo, rotundiformi, ultra maxillam inferiorem protrudente. Oris rictu ohliquo, rectilineari. Dentibus maxillarihus miriufissimis, vixque visibilihus. Dentibus vomero-iMlatinis in duplicem arcum acutum, qui ex sphenoidalis extremitate anteriore per palaii marginem pos- teriorem extendunt atque e narihus interiorihus aperturam angustam efficiunt, dispositis. Dentibus sphenoidalibus in duas areas oblongas ordi'natis. Lingua ampla, eUlptica, centrali quadam radice fixa, teriiaque ejus parte posteriore libera rnanente. Oculis magnis. Cruribus gracilibus, anterioribus longioribus ; digitis palmaruin quatuor, plantarum quinque, omnibus disiinctis et attenuantibus. Cauda subcylindrica, paulum compressa, in exiremiiaie gradatini minuente. Cute externa Icevi et molli.

Gen. Char. Head, subelliptical, broader than the body. Snout, blunt and rounded; protruding beyond the lower jaw. Cleft of the mouth, oblique and rectilinear. Maxillary teeth exceedingly minute, scarcely perceptible. Vomero-palatine teeth disposed upon a double ogive, extending from the anterior extremity of the sphenoid, along the posterior edge of the palatine floor, thus making of the inner nostrils a circumscribed aperture. Sphenoid teeth forming two elongated patches. Tongue large, elliptical.

BATRACHIAURODELA. 11

attached by an elongated central pedicle, and free upon its poste- rior third. Eyes large. Limbs slender; anterior ones, longest; four fingers; five toes, all free, tapering. Tail subcylindrical, slightly compressed, tapering towards the tip. Skin, exteriorly sni.ooth and soft.

SYN.—Heredia, Grd. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philad. VIII, 1856, 140.

Observ. No genera are more alike in their external aspect than Heredia and Anaides. To distinguish them we must have recourse to the anatomy of the buccal cavity, although, one might recognize them on a profile view of the head, where the cleft of the mouth would become an important feature.

Heredia oregonensis, Girard. (Plate I, figs. 18-25.)

Car. spec. Plicatura suhcoUo nulla. Cauda suhcyUndrica, gradatim minuente, quam corpus et caput simid sumpta longiore. Palmarum H 'plantarum dlgitis tenuihus et dlstinctls, interlorihus perparvis, 'Cute Icevi. Colore supra fasco ; infra clariore.

Spec. Char. No fold of the skin under the neck. Tail, subcylin- drical, tapering, longer than the body and head together. Fingers and toes slender and free ; inner one very small. Skin, smooth. Color uniform dark-brown above, lighter beneath.

SY^.—Hiredla oregonemu, Grd. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philad. VIII, 1856, 141. —Hallow. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philad. Vllt, 1856, 235.

Descr. In its general physiognomy this species resembles strik- ingly, Anaides lugnhrls. It has the same general shape of the head, neck, body, and limbs ; but the callous termination of the toes is much less developed.

The head is quite prominent, depressed ; its upper surface sub- concave ; elliptical in outline, when seen from above. The snout is thick and subtruncated, overlapping the lower jaw. The nostrils are

12 B A T R A C H I A.

lateral and nearly terminal. The eyes are prominent, subcircular ; the distance between their anterior rim and the extremity of the snout is a little more than one of their diameter. The cleft of the mouth is uniformly curved, and not undulating as in Anaides lugu- hris ; its angles extend almost to a vertical line drawn across the posterior rim of the orbit. The maxillary teeth are very minute, almost invisible to the naked eye. The palatine teeth are small, and disposed upon two open curves, one on each side, extending from the medial line of the palate almost to the jaw bone, leaving the inner nostrils in advance of them. The sphenoid teeth are very minute ; disposed upon a double patch. The tongue is proportionally large, elliptical ; adhering along its medial line, and free on the sides, as also posteriorly.

The neck is very distinct from the head and body. There is no gular fold. The body itself is subcylindrical ; diminishing anteriorly as well as posteriorly ; it is not plicated or folded laterally, though the specimens exhibit vertical lines corresponding to the ribs. The tail is subcylindrical ; rounded above and below ; a little longer than the body and head together ; very much tapering, and terminating into a point.

The anterior and posterior limbs are of equal length; but the latter are stouter, and when bent in an opposite direction, alongside the body, they overlap each other the whole length of the carpus and tarsus, including the toes. The inner toe, in both pair of limbs, is quite small ; in the anterior pair, the third is the longest ; the second is a little shorter than the latter, and the fourth, a little longer than the first or inner one. The longest toe, in the posterior limbs, is the third likewise ; the fourth being nearly equal to it ; whilst the second is a little longer than the fourth, which itself is a little more developed than the first or innermost.

The skin is perfectly smooth externally ; but, on being examined under the microscope, it exhibits a mesh work of little stellated bodies similar to those o^ Aiiaides lugidtris, but proportionally larger.

According to a sketch from life, made by Mr. Drayton, the ground color is milky-white, with crowded dots of reddish-brown. On the specimens preserved in alcohol, however, the body, head, and limbs are of a uniform dark-brown j lighter beneath. Under a low magni- fying power minute dots may be observed scattered all over the surface.

BATRACHIAURODELA. 1|

Loc. This species was collected at Discovery Harbor, Puget Sound (Oregon), in May, 1841.

Plate I, fig. 18, represents Heredia oregonensis, size of life.

Fig. 19, exhibits the under surface of the same animal.

Fig. 20, the head, viewed from above, showing the interocular space.

Fig. 21, a profile of the head, exhibiting the gape of the mouth.

Fig. 22, front view of the head, showing the situation of the nostrils.

Fig. 23, inferior floor of the mouth, and outline of the tongue.

Fig. 24, the upper floor of the mouth, with the inner nostrils and disposition of its teeth.

Fig. 25, a fragment of skin, somewhat magnified, though not sufiQ- ciently to exhibit the stellated shape of the little bodies it contains.

aENUS XIPHONURA, TscH.

Gen. Char. Head large, very much depressed; its upper surface convex. Vomerine teeth disposed upon a continued transverse series, behind the inner nostrils ; no teeth on the sphenoid bone. Maxillary teeth quite small, conical, and acute. Tongue large, broad ; attached by most of its under surface, leaving only the edges free. Feet proportionally stout and large. Toes rather short, broad, and subpalmate or free ; callous at their tips. Tail elongated, much compressed, and ensiform ; about the same length as the body. Skin densely studded with minute granules.

Syn. Xiplionura, TscH. in M6m. Soc. Sci. nat. Neuch. II, 1838, 95. G-RAy, Catal, Amph. Brit. Mus. II, 1850, 34.— Dum. & Bibr. Erpet. gen. IX, 1854, 161.

Observ. It has been deemed expedient to distinguish generically from AmUystoma, in accordance with Tschudi and Gray, such species, the tail of which is very compressed, and the skin granular ; adding to these characters, a larger tongue and stouter limbs.

Besides the species hereinafter described, there is another belonging to the genus Xiphmmra, inhabiting the eastern range of the United States, Xiphonura jeffersoniana : the Salamandra jeffersoniana of Green,

or Triton niger of Dekay.

4

14 B A TRACE I A. *

We are inclined to think that Triton ensatus, from California, de- scribed in Eschscholtz's " Zoologischer Atlas," V, 1833, page 6, and figured on Plate xxii of the same work, will constitute a third species of this genus. r

XiPHONURA TENEBROSA, Grd.

"' ' (Plate I, figs. 9-17.)

Char. spec. Gapite valde amplo et depresso. Cauda valde compressa et corporis lo7igiiudinem adequante. Digitis palmarum plantarumque elongatis, complanatk. Gute densa et inconspicue gramdata. Supra ruhro'fasca, maculis nigro-fuscis interspersis ; infra unicolori.

Spec. Char. Head very broad and flat. Tail very much compressed, equal to the body in length. Fingers and toes rather long and flattened. Skin densely and inconspicuously granular. Color, dark reddish-brown above, spotted with deeper brown ; beneath, unicolor.

Syn. Amllystoma tenehrosum, B. «&; Gr. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philad. VI, 1852, 174.

Bescr. The head forms about the sixth of the entire length ; it is proportionally large, and well detached from the body ; depressed and subconcave superiorly ; viewed from above, its shape is ovoidal, nar- rowest forwards. The snout is rounded; the nostrils are situated high up on the sides, a little more distant from the anterior rim of the orbit than the extremity of the snout. The eyes are of medium size ; their anterior margin is one and a half of their diameter distant from the extremity of the snout. The mouth is broadly cleft. The max- illary teeth are proportionally small, acute, and conical; disposed upon one row ; somewhat more conspicuous on the lower than on the upper jaw. The vomero-palatine teeth constitute a gently undulating and transverse band, extending from the exterior edge of the inner nostrils to the middle line of the vomer, where the bands from either side meet, without being, however, in immediate contiguity. The sphenoid is entirely deprived of teeth. The inner nostrils themselves are broadly open and far apart. The tongue is very large, broad, attached by most of its under surface ; its lateral margins alone being free and slightly also anteriorly.

The neck is almost continuous with the body ; whilst the head is rather detached from it, owing to the development of the temporal region. A double gular fold may be observed. The body itself is

BATRACHIATJRODELA. If

subcylindrical. The tail is as long as the body, the head excluded ; it is compressed, subquadrangular upon its anterior third, very thin pos- teriorly, with the upper and lower edges quite sharp, and tapering